Legionnaires’ disease and the built environment
Legionnaires disease is a form of Pneumonia, which usually happen due to lung inflammation. Legionnaires disease is caused by the bacteria named Legionella. Most people get affected due to Legionnaires disease by inhaling the bacteria from soil or water, adults ageing more than 50 Years old, smokers, and people with the weak immune system are the primary suspect of Legionnaires disease. The Legionella bacterium also causes mild illness which resembles flu, which is also known as Pontiac fever. Usually, Pontiac fever gets created on its own as the body creates antibiotics to cure it. Similarly, to cure Legionnaires disease our body works in building the antibiotics for the treatment of this disease.
Legionnaires disease usually develops within 2 to 10 days and the frequently beginning signs and symptoms are fever that is up to 104 and higher, headache, and muscle aches. By the fourth and fifth day, individuals will develop signs and symptoms, which include mental changes, chest pain, cough, mucus, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, etc. Although Legionnaires disease primarily affects the lungs but occasionally causes wounds on other parts of the body. Most people are infected when they inhale microscopic water droplets containing this Legionella bacteria. The major outbreak happens at swimming pools, hot water tanks or heaters, drinking water filters, whirlpools, birthing pools, decorative fountains, cooling towers in air conditioning systems, etc.
Complications from Legionnaires’ disease
Legionnaires’ disease can cause a variety of critical complications, including Acute nephropathy. This is often the abrupt loss of your kidneys’ ability to filter waste from your blood. once your kidneys fail, dangerous levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body. Respiratory failure happens once the lungs cannot offer the body enough chemical elements or cannot take away enough Carbon Dioxide from the blood. Septic shock happens once the vital sign reduces blood flow to important organs, particularly to the kidneys and brain. The guts try to compensate by increasing the quantity of blood wired, however, the additional work eventually weakens the guts and reduces blood flow even more.
Transmission of Legionella bacteria
Legionella bacteria are transmitted into two ways. The First way is through Aspiration. When liquids accidentally enter our lungs which contain Legionella bacteria and hence, cough and choke is been sensed while drinking water. Secondly, through Soil. Individuals and people working in the garden come into the contact with contaminated soil, which consists of Legionella bacteria & may suffer from this disease.Though not everyone is been exposed to Legionella bacteria, individuals, Who smoke in a more susceptible manner. Have a weakened immune system. Have chronic lung disease, and Are aged 50 or more than 50 years old, have a higher probability and vulnerability towards this disease.
When to visualise a health care professional when affected with Legionnaires’ disease:
An individual should consult a doctor he or she feels exposed to Legionella pneumophilia microorganism. Identification and treating lower’s pneumonia as shortly as attainable will facilitate shortening the recovery amount and stop serious complications. For folks at high risk, like smokers or older adults, prompt treatment is important. Legionnaires disease can lead to life-threatening complications as it also includes respiratory failure, acute kidney failure, septic shock, etc. The only way to prevent this outbreak is by monitoring the cleanliness and regularly checking the water management systems in the building as well as avoiding smoking.