Sustainable development goals are the ones that are needed to be followed by the government so that sustainability of the countries is possible in the future (Fonseca et al. 2020). There are different countries specially the developed as well as developing ones which have successfully implemented these goals in their countries and the policies present in these countries. However, there are economically weak countries like Tanzania that faces a lot of problems in maintaining the sustainable development goals. The SDG that is considered here is No Poverty or SDG 1. It is found that Tanzania is suffering to meet all the needs of the sustainable development. It is found that there are strategies that are mainly developed so that the growth in the economic condition can be promoted and this will automatically reduce the chances of poverty in the country. The social wellbeing, quality of life and also accountability will be linked with the economic background of the Tanzanians. There is a high level of rural population who are suffering from poverty and it is found that poverty can be accelerated if there is degradation in the agriculture of the country. It can be stated that the causes of poverty in the country are highly complicated and is widely distributed throughout the country (Kinyondo and Pelizzo, 2018). It is seen that Trade policies are complex for the developing or lower economic countries. This is posing problem for the country and therefore, it becomes difficult for the country to improve the export quantity. This is an essay that will be focusing on the overview of Tanzania where there will be discussion on the sustainable development goal and the issues related to it. This will be followed by the challenges that faced by the country and the part of the population that is mostly affected. The last part of the essay will be focusing on recommendations and already implemented strategies.
Overview of the country
The country that is selected here is Tanzania. From the list of the Sustainable development goals, it is seen that SDG 1 or No Poverty is not appropriate in the country. Tanzania is the country filled with low-income people and is the country where most of the people are fighting for a good survival. There are different initiatives that are taken in the country so that the poverty can be mitigated and the people can lead a good life with the family. It is found that the during the early years of 21st century, the United Republic of Tanzania had signed and also committed itself to the implementation of the different goals in the population. There are several strategies that are needed to be implemented to reduce the level of poverty in the country. The initiatives that are taken by the government of Tanzania include the adoption of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) which is famously known as “Mpango wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umasikini Tanzania (‘MKUKUTA’)”. There are initiatives like Development vision 2025 for main Tanzania, Vision 2020 for Zanzibar and Kilimo Kwanza related to Agriculture in the country (Pietrelli and Scaramozzino, 2019). It is found that the strategies are mainly developed so that the growth in the economic condition can be promoted and this will automatically reduce the chances of poverty in the country. The social wellbeing, quality of life and also accountability will be linked with the economic background of the Tanzanians. There has been a slight increase in the economic conditions of Tanzania between the years 1998 and 2008. Even though there has been a slight increase in the GDP of the country, the margin of poverty in the country is still huge. Most of the people who are from economically weak background are from the farmer’s family. There are citizens of Tanzania who live below the line of poverty and this shows that the country is not economically strong. It is found that in the country the child rights are not met and therefore they are deprived of the basic facilities. When the statistics of poverty in Tanzania is considered, it is seen that around 26 million people in the country are lying in extreme poverty (Christiaensen et al. 2018). This clearly shows that there is failure of the Sustainable Development Goal 1 or No Poverty.
There are different reasons behind the occurrence of poverty in Tanzania. It is found that one of the least developed countries is Tanzania in the world and despite the initiatives to meet the SDG 1 or No Poverty, there is a significant number of the citizens who are suffering from poverty on a daily basis. Around 70% of the population is considered to be suffering from poverty. Around 34% of the population is falling below the line of basic needs and this means that they are unable to receive the resources needed to remain healthy. No Poverty is being difficult to be attained in Tanzania and therefore, there is poverty in the country. There is an unequal distribution of finances and this leads to the serious lack of needed resources. When there is poverty in the different parts of the country, it is seen that the citizens are also being forced to deal with the insecurity of food and also malnutrition. There are initiatives like Food Security Act in the year 1991 that was designed to the local food shortages. It is found out that Chawmino district which is one of the many countries that are present in Tanzania consists of a large number of people who can’t afford the daily food. Poverty has led to the people not being able to buy proper food and therefore, a huge consequence is faced by the people who are suffering from poverty. There is a high dependence of the people on agriculture and this also cause poverty among the people. There is a high level of rural population who are suffering from poverty and it is found that poverty can be accelerated if there is degradation in the agriculture of the country (Letta et al. 2018). It can be stated that the causes of poverty in the country are highly complicated and is widely distributed throughout the country. It is important for the people to understand the consequences of poverty and accordingly the government should work on the different initiatives that are needed to be implemented so that the SDG 1 or No Poverty can be successful in the country. It is also seen that there is poor agricultural technology that makes it difficult for the farmers of the country to make rapid growth in the economy. Poor technology along with the different restrictions of obtaining necessary resources has become the main causes of poverty (Pantaleo, 2020). The people of the country are suffering from poverty in the recent past and it is considered to be the effect of Covid-19 pandemic. The poverty rate shows that most of the people are defined as poor when they are not being able to fulfil their basic needs. Tanzania lacks proper policies for agriculture so that the needs of the country can be met and this lack of assistance that is provided to each farmer may result to lower levels of income. This forces people to not be able to obtain the necessary resources and therefore, forcing them into poverty. The entire scenario of the country shows that the condition of the SDG 1 is not satisfactory in Tanzania. The people belonging to the rural communities present in Mainland Tanzania and also Zanzibar are the vulnerable ones to poverty.
Analysis of the issue identified
There are different types of strategies that are being designed by the government of Tanzania to make a reduction in the occurrence of poverty in Zanzibar which is a part of Tanzania. It is found that the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) has been one of the most ambitious initiatives by the government. However, there has been issue regarding the funding of the strategy or initiative. There are barriers in the flow of finances created by the developed countries. It is seen that NSGRP is the strategy that has been adopted by the government in the year 2005 (Bray et al. 2020). It is understood from a study conducted by Economic and Social Research Foundation of Tanzania that the implementation of NSGRP will be requiring a high level of funding. The country is facing the food shortage as the result of different causes including droughts. When the barriers to the financial flows are considered, it is found that there are two main barriers that are playing its part in the developed countries (Gregory and Sovacool, 2019). It is found that the unfair trade rule imposed by Zanzibar is one of the barriers. International trade is one of the most potent ways of improving the social and economic conditions of the country. It is also estimated that the share of Africa in the international trade has been increased by only 1%. With this increase in the share, Africa will only earn an extra of GBP 49 billion each year (Aikaeli et al. 2021). However, if all the countries of Africa including Zanzibar are able to receive the increase of 1% in the international trade, then a huge number of people can easily make their way out of poverty. The trade restrictions that are acting as barriers to the financial flows into the country are the complex rule made by the developed countries for the product origin that is applied to the imports from Zanzibar. This rule also means that the amount of product that would qualify for the export. This means that only a third of the imports are eligible for the developing countries and they are eligible for the preferential access to meet the rule of origin. Even when the exporters of Zanzibar started to comply with the trade rules of the developing countries, it is found that the restrictions started to arise due to the health and safety. There are anti-dumping regulations that are also applied when the exporters sell products much below the cost of production are considered to be another barrier to the potential exports as well as revenue. The next barrier that is being faced by the government and the country is the continuous level of burden of the external debt. Owing to the lower economic conditions of the country, it is found that there is a high level of debt that is present in Zanzibar. However, Zanzibar is facing some of the reliefs from the debts (Bray et al. 2020). Despite all the initiatives that are taken for the country so that it can fight with the high level of debt, it is found that there is a continuous growth in the external debt and therefore the resources that are limited in the country started draining out. Had there been no presence of external debts in the country, then the government of Tanzania including Zanzibar could make the correct utilisation of the funds so that mitigation of poverty could have been possible in the country. Among the MDG or millennium development goal is the “proportion of population below basic needs poverty live” and it is seen that there is decline in the implementation of the goal (Aikaeli et al. 2021). It is also seen that there has been inflation in Zanzibar due to the problem in the budget allocation for the entire Tanzania. There has been a rapid increase in the inflation rate and this posed to be one of the major barriers in the fulfilment of the MDG related to poverty.
There are few challenges that are being found to be faced by Zanzibar in the recent past. There are food insecurity and poverty rising in the country. It is found that one of the least developed parts in Tanzania is Zanzibar. There are challenges that are faced by the government while providing any initiative are foreign direct investment, and incorrect framework of policy. It is found that there is dependence on the development partners and this becomes a challenge for the farmers. The National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA) is the initiative that deals with the food requirements. If the agricultural farms are not having enough funds, then it would be difficult for the initiative to maintain the food requirements. It is found that due to improper provision of food, NFRA is facing difficulty in maintaining the food reserves and thus, the local food shortages are not addressed leading to poverty. The main challenges are related to the technology in the agriculture. The rural people who are facing most problems due to poverty and this are because there is a rising level of unemployment visible in Zanzibar. It is found that most of the people in Zanzibar are unemployed and this has reduced the entire income of the population of the country including this area. This is the main reason that the people are facing poverty issues in the country. It is also seen that there is poor agricultural technology that makes it difficult for the farmers of the country to make rapid growth in the economy. Poor technology along with the different restrictions of obtaining necessary resources has become the main causes of poverty. When there is poverty, then there are limited economic conditions for the treatment of the children as well as the entire population (Humble and Dixon, 2017). The poverty in the country is being assessed using the different monetary expenses and income and it is found that most of the people are dependent on agriculture. When poverty is hitting the families, then there is onset of different types of diseases due to hunger and poverty. It is found that the families who are not having high standards of economy are facing difficulty in attaining treatment from the hospitals (Bwana et al. 2019). This means that people from lower economic background at the high level of vulnerability when it comes to health treatments. There are lesser treatments available to these people.
Recommendations and interventions
First recommendation is that Nigeria should help Tanzania in expanding economic opportunities. It is found that the country is giving more focus on the inflation rate and then focusing on the areas that can allow the growth of economy in the country. Therefore, Nigeria should arrange different programs that are related to empowerment and employment that are utilised in these strategies and these programs mainly focus on the agricultural, manufacturing, tourism as well as mining sectors of the country. It is already known that the rise of employment among the population of the country will help in the reduction of the poverty. It is also seen that the increased rate of employment in the different sectors of the country is giving rise to the amount of export from the country (Christiaensen et al. 2019). When there is an enhanced chance of export in the country, then the economic conditions along with the agricultural conditions will be better. This has direct contact with the poverty conditions of the country. The main focus of the government is to bring the people out of poverty. The second recommendation is that Nigeria can work on the personal needs of the people of Tanzania. It is found that the reduction in poverty can be done when there are efforts taken to increase the level of quality of life and also ensure that there is access of poverty to the social welfare. Nigeria can easily provide assistance to Tanzania so that it can provide education to the girls. It has been demonstrated that educating girls benefits future generations economically and socially. The provision of education shows that the increase in funding of the education will produce literate people who can be employed and then poverty can be reduced. The third recommendation is that Nigeria should provide funds to Tanzania so that it can allow international participation in order to mitigate poverty. There are different strategies that can be provided in the international market and this can help the government to mitigate poverty from the country (Haule, 2021). Thus, recommendation that is suggested is by strengthening Tanzania’s standards of education, Nigeria can assist Tanzania in eradicating poverty. To raise Tanzania’s literacy rate, funding could be offered. Allowing Nigerian start-ups in the country is another strategy to assist Tanzania in overcoming poverty. SDG1 is the one that aims to end poverty from all the countries. It is seen that almost 8% of the families who are living in the entire world are suffering from extreme poverty in the year 2018. When the families are aiming to move out of the poverty, then the health of the children will improve. The first thing that the countries are committed to is ending child poverty. It is found that the societies are having deprived of the rights to good nutrition, water, and health and these may have serious and lifelong impacts on the children in the future.
In Tanzania, it is seen that No poverty rights are allowing the country to reduce the poverty by 8% in 10 years. There has been poverty assessment of the country that shows the continuous effort of the government to enhance the conditions of the living of the country. This has increased the basic services and has enhanced the outcomes of the human capital that helped the country to reduce poverty. However, Nigeria can help Tanzania reduce poverty by enhancing the education level in Tanzania. There can be funds provided to increase the level of literacy in Tanzania. The other way in which Tanzania can be helped to move out from poverty is by allowing Nigerian start-ups in the county. Nigeria can create different attractive opportunities for the literate people of Tanzania with no proper training. The main way in which Nigeria can help Tanzania fight poverty is by providing funds to the country for enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the people. This is the way poverty can be dealt in Nigeria.
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