How to do Referencing of an Assignment
As a university student, one has to submit various assignments, essays, dissertation and projects. The information that we write in these assignments is usually referred from different sources. Referencing involves writing reference of the sources you have referred for your projects. Whenever someone or something is quoted in the body of the essay, the reference used is called in-text citation while bibliography is the detailed list of the cited sources with their complete information provided at the end of the assignment.
The purpose of the citation is to acknowledge the source that has been referred for generating an article. It may come as a footnote at the bottom of a page, or at the end of the article, or as end notes in case of books. Whether the student is new in the field or an expert, citing the sources is considered significant. In the field of academic writing, citations being the cornerstone, help in differentiating the ethical and unethical writing contents. Further, it can also distinguish researches that are derived from secondary sources from the research that has been conducted originally. It becomes the responsibility of the student to give due credit to the people who have helped him in generating the content and to learn to accept which content is theirs and which belong to his. Universities are strict about their plagiarism policy and it may cost a student his/her career if the student do not follow proper guidelines. There have been various scandals in the field of academic writing for not following the plagiarism guidelines properly. It costs people their reputation and life long career.
There are different ways of referencing the assignments. In USA and UK, many educational institutions have prepared certain formats for citing the sources referred in an assignment. These formats have been accepted worldwide. For the ease of academicians, these formats are created as a format gives a standard to people all across the globe. If a student has followed these standard referencing styles for their assignment, it becomes very easy for the teacher or the instructor to know the sources one has referred for their project. There are different styles available viz. The Harvard method, APA style referencing, MLA style referencing and Chicago style referencing etc. Further, there are certain universities which have defined their own styles of referencing the assignments. These styles can be accessed from the respective university’s website or from the library of the university.
How to do Harvard Style of referencing in an Assignment
In case of writing “in-text citations” an ‘author/date’ system is followed and the list of references is provided at the end of the assignment or the paper. For books we write –Author surname, year (e.g. Michael 1978) for in-text citation and the reference is written as-
Author surname, initial of the name. (year of publication). Name of the source. Place of publishing: name of the publisher.
In case of websites, in-text citation involves writing of author name and date created and the reference is written as-
Author surname, initial of the name. (date of publication). Title of the website. Available at: http://link of the website (Access date:date accessed)
In case of journals in-text citation is written as (Author name(s) and date published. The reference list is written as-
Author name(s), initials of the name. (publication year). ‘Title of the article’ Title of the journal Volume of the journal, Issue number of the journal, Range of page of the article.
How to do APA (American Psychological Association) style of referencing in an Assignment
In case of books in-text citation are written as (Author surname, year of publication, p.)
e.g. Michael, 1987, p.98)
Reference is written as-
Author surname, initial of the name, (Year of publication). Name of the source. Place of publication: Name of the publisher.
The name of the source should be given in italics.
In case of websites in-text citation is written as- Author surname, year, p.), p refers to the page number
The reference is written as-
Author(s) surnames, initials of the name. (Year month date of publication). Title of the article. URL from which it is retrieved.
In case of journals, in-text citation is written as (Author surname, year of publication, p.) and the reference list is generated at the end are written as
Author(s), publication year, Title of the article, name of the journal, volume number, issue number, range of page number of the article.
How to do MLA (Modern Language Association) style of referencing in an Assignment:
In case of books, in-text citation are written as- (Author surname, year of publication)
e.g. (Ferreira, 2019)
Reference is written as
Author surname, initial of the name. (Year of publication). Name of the source, Place of the publication: Publisher of the book.
(Source name should be given in italics)
In case of websites in-text citation is written as- (‘Title of the page’ year of publication)
Reference list is given as-
Last name of the author, First name of the author, “Title of the page or article.” Title of the website, Publisher’s name. Publication date (given in the format DD/MM/YYYY, URL.
In case of journals, in-text citations are given as (Author surname and page range of the article)
Reference list is written as-
Last name of the authors, first name of the author. “Title of the article.“ Title of the journal Volume of the series. Issue (publication year): Page(s). Print.
How to do Chicago style of Referencing in an Assignment:
In case of books, in-text citation is written as- (Author(s) surname year of publication) e.g. Ira and Farro 1998)
Reference list is written as- Author(s) surname, First name of the author. Year of the publication, Name of the source, Place of publishing: Name of the publisher.
(The name of the source has to be in italics)
In case of websites, in-text citation is written as-(Surname of the author and publishing year)
The reference should be given as-
Author surname, first name of the author, “Title of the page” Name of the website, URL
In case of journals, in-text citation should be given as (Author surname and year of publication)
The reference is given as –
Surname of the author, first name of the author, Year of publication. “Title of the article”. Name of the journal volume (issue no.): number of pages used.
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